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Home  >  Digital Archives  >  Industry  >  Healthcare
Memories of Kanakanak Hospital and Orphanage  -  Related Materials
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Visit the Library for More Information:

Alaska's libraries hold audio, visual, and written material about Kanakanak Hospital and health care in the territory. Visit your local library or go online to see what's available in holdings all over the state. Take these simple steps:

  1. Access SLED (State Library Electronic Doorway) at
  2. Click on the listing for ALNCat (the Alaska Library Network Catalog) to view the Basic Search window.
    Go to the Keyword field, and type in KANAKANAK, 1918 INFLUENZA, or ALASKA HEALTH CARE HISTORY.

More Reading:

Alaska Area Native Health Service. Kanakanak. Anchorage, Alaska: U.S. Public Health Service, 1900-1983.

Alaska Natives Commission, Volume II, Report of the Health Task Force. Anchorage: Alaska Natives Commission, 1994.

Anderson, Eva Greenslit. Dog-Team Doctor: The Story of Dr. Romig. Caldwell, Id.: The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1940.

Crosby, Alfred W. America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. Second Edition. Cambridge, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Fortuine, Robert. Chills and Fever: Health and Disease in the Early History of Alaska. Fairbanks, Alaska: University of Alaska Press, 1989.

Fortuine, Robert. Health Care and the Alaska Native: Some Historical Perspectives. Hanover, N.H.: Dartmouth College Library, 1975.

Kolata, Bina Bari. Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search for the Virus that Caused It. First edition. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.

Romig, Joseph Herman. A Medical Handbook for Missionaries in Cold Climates. Philadelphia: Boericke & Tafel, 1904.

Romig, Joseph Herman. In the Alaska Indian Service, 1909-1911. Colorado Springs, Colo.: Democrat Publishing Co., 1944.

For Juvenile Readers:

Getz, David and Peter McCarty. Purple Death: The Mysterious Flu of 1918. New York: Henry Holt, 2000.

Sandler, Martin W. America's Great Disasters. New York: HarperCollins, 2003.


Gregg, Elinor D. Alaska Trip, 1936. VHS tape (42 min.) Alaska: E. Gregg, 1939. This videotape is a copy of a black-and-white motion picture film taken by Elinor Gregg during her trip to Alaska in 1939. The film begins while she is aboard the North Star through the Inland Passage and includes footage from stops at Ketchikan, Wrangell, and Juneau. She next crossed the Gulf of Alaska to Seward, and shot views of Cordova, Seward, a train in the Seward station, Mountain View, and Anchorage. She then went to Nome via a chartered airplane. This part of the film includes scenery, the float plane, aerial views, views of interior villages (Dillingham, Bethel, Kanakanak, and Unalakleet), and views of hospital interiors, hospital staffs, homes, boats, and a garden. There are views of sailors taking a sounding, Teller, women making fried bread, a kayak, an umiak, a sailboat, the hospital interior and staff, a surgical operation, and people at Barrow. On the return trip, she visited various villages (Point Hope, Kotzebue, Kivalina) and filmed a cemetery, villagers killing part of the Kivalina reindeer herd, and King Island. She returned home by airplane via Fairbanks and Tanana. The final footage includes children, a schoolhouse interior, residences, a DC-3 airplane, and aerial views.

Photograph Collections:

Tikhon Ioannikievich and Mary Louise Lavrischeff collection, 1931-1935. Includes photos of Kanakanak Industrial School (1931-1932), a trip from California to Kanakanak (1931), Hoonah, Southeast Alaska, the Lavrischeffs including John Lavrischeff as a child.

Department of Health and Social Services photo collection, 1940s-1960s. 1940s-1960s Alaska State Library, 1,405 black and white photographs, ca. 50 slides. This collection documents health programs in Alaska from Territorial days including efforts of the Alaska Department of Health, U.S. Indian Services, and U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Doctors, nurses, public health commissioners, village health centers, marine hospitals, tuberculosis control and rural health providers and resources are depicted in the photographs.

Archival Materials:

The M/S Hygiene. Alaska Department of Health archival materials, 1947. University of Alaska Fairbanks, Elmer Rasmuson Library.

Papers of Robert Fortuine, 1957-1999. University of Alaska Anchorage. The collection consists of Robert Fortuine's published and unpublished writings, as well as papers relating to the International Symposium on Circumpolar Health and the American Society for Circumpolar Health, published photographs, and miscellaneous materials. The published writings are arranged chronologically, as are the manuscripts of published and unpublished writings. Bio/History: Robert Fortuine is a public health physician. He received his medical degree from McGill University in 1960 and his Masters of Public Health from Harvard University in 1968. Fortuine first came to Alaska in 1963, and has held the following positions: service unit director for the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) Alaska Native Hospital in Kanakanak (1963-1964), service unit director for the USPHS Alaska Native Hospital in Bethel (1964-1967), director of the USPHS Alaska Native Medical Center in Anchorage (1971-1977), and deputy chief of family medicine (1980-1987). Dr. Fortuine has also been active in national and Alaskan medical professional associations, as well as the American Society for Circumpolar Health and the International Symposium for Circumpolar Health. He has published numerous articles on medicine and Alaskan and Native medical history, and has authored books including: The Alaska Diary of Adelbert von Chamisso: Naturalist on the Kotzebue Voyage, 1815-1918 (translator and editor, 1986), Alaska Native Medical Center: A History, 1953-1983 (1986), and Chills and Fever: Health and Disease in the Early History of Alaska (1989).

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